The orphaned VMs in vCenter inventory is an unusual view in experienced administrator’s Web/vSphere Client window. But in large environments, where many people manage hosts and VMs it will happen sometimes.
You do know how to get rid of them using traditional methods described in VMware KB articles and by other well known bloggers, but there’s a quite elegant new method using dcli.
This handy tool is available in vCLI package, in 6.5/6.7 vCSA shell and vCenter Server on Windows command prompt. Dcli does use APIs to give an administrator the interface to call some methods to get done or to automate some tasks.
How to use it to remove orphaned VMs from vCenter inventory?
Open an SSH session to vCSA and log in as root user.
Run dcli command in an interactive mode.
Get a list of VMs registered in vCenter’s inventory. Log in as administrator user in your SSO domain. You can save credentials in the credstore for future use.
From the displayed list get VM’s MoID (Managed Object Id) of the affected VM, e.g. vm-103.
Run this command to delete the record of the affected VM using its MoID from vCenter’s database.
Using Web/vSphere Client check the vCenter’s inventory if the affected VM is now deleted.
Part 2 – How to list vSwitch “MAC Address table” on ESXi host?
Creating virtual switch through GUI is well described in documentation and pretty intuitive using GUI. However, sometimes it might be useful to know how to do it with CLI or Powershell, thus making the process part of a script to automate initial configuration of ESXi after installation.
Here you will find commands which are necessary to create and configure a standard virtual switch using CLI and Powershell. Those examples will describe the process of vSwitch creation for vMotion traffic which involves VMkernel creation.
I. vSwitch configuration through CLI
Create a vSwitch named “vMotion”
esxcli network vswitch standard add -v vMotion
Check whether your newly created vSwitch was configured and is available on the list.
esxcli network vswitch standard list
Add physical uplink (vmnic) to your vSwitch
esxcli network vswitch standard uplink add -u vmnic4 -v vMotion
Designate an uplink to be used as active.
esxcli network vswitch standard policy failover set -a vmnic4 -v vMotion
Add a port group named “vMotion-PG” to previously created vSwitch
esxcli network vswitch standard portgroup add -v vMotion -p vMotion-PG
Add a VMkernel interface to a port group (Optional – not necessary if you are creating a vSwitch just for VM traffic)
esxcli network ip interface add -p vMotion-PG -i vmk9
Configure IP settings of a VMkernel adapter.
esxcli network ip interface ipv4 set -i vmk9 -t static -I 172.20.14.11 -N 255.255.255.0
Tag VMkernel adapter for a vMotion service. NOTE – service tag is case sensitive.
esxcli network ip interface tag add -i vmk9 -t vmotion
Done, your vSwitch is configured and ready to service vMotion traffic.
vSAN 6.6 it’s 6th generation of the product and there are more than 20+ new features and enhancements in this release, such as:
Native encryption for data-at-rest
Resilient management independent of vCenter
Degraded Disk Handling v2.0 (DDHv2)
Smart repairs and enhanced rebalancing
Intelligent rebuilds using partial repairs
Certified file service & data protection solutions
Stretched clusters with local failure protection
Site affinity for stretched clusters
1-click witness change for Stretched Cluster
vSAN Management Pack for vRealize
Enhanced vSAN SDK and PowerCLI
Simple networking with Unicast
vSAN Cloud Analytics with real-time support notification and recommendations
vSAN Config Assist with 1-click hardware lifecycle management
Extended vSAN Health Services
vSAN Easy Install with 1-click fixes
Up to 50% greater IOPS for all-flash with optimized checksum and dedupe
Support for new next-gen workloads
vSAN for Photon in Photon Platform 1.1
Day 0 support for latest flash technologies
Expanded caching tier choice
Docker Volume Driver 1.1
… ok now lets review main enhancements:
vSAN 6.6 introduces the industry’s first native HCI security solution. vSAN will now offer data-at-rest encryption that is completely hardware-agnostic. No more concern about someone walking off with a drive or breaking in to a less-secure, edge IT location and stealing hardware. Encryption is applied at the cluster level, and any data written to a vSAN storage device, both at the cache layer and persistent layer can now be fully encrypted. And vSAN 6.6 supports 2-factor authentication, including SecurID and CAC.
Certified file services and data protection solutions are available from 3rd party partners in the VMware Ready for vSAN Program to enable customers to extend and complement their vSAN environment with proven, industry-leading solutions. These solutions provide customers with detailed guidance on how to complement vSAN. (EMC NetWorker is avaialble today with new solutions coming on soon)
vSAN stretched cluster was released in Q3’15 to provide an Active-Active solution. vSAN 6.6 adds a major new capability that will deliver a highly-available stretched cluster that addresses the highest resiliency requirements of data centers. vSAN 6.6 adds support for local failure protection that can provide resiliency against both site failures and local component failures.
PowerCLI Updates: Full featured vSAN PowerCLI cmdlets enable full automation that includes all the latest features. SDK/API updates also enable enterprise-class automation that brings cloud management flexibility to storage by supporting REST APIs.
VMware vRealize Operations Management Pack for vSAN released recently, provides customers with native integration for simplified management and monitoring. The vSAN management pack is specifically designed to accelerate time to production with vSAN, optimize application performance for workloads running on vSAN and provide unified management for the Software Defined Datacenter (SDDC). It provides additional options for monitoring, managing and troubleshooting vSAN along with the end-to-end infrastructure solutions.
Finally, vSAN 6.6 is well suited for next-generation applications. Performance improvements, especially when combined with new flash technologies for write-intensive applications, enable vSAN to address more emerging applications like Big Data. The vSAN team has also tested and released numerous reference architectures for these types of solutions, including Big Data, Splunk and InterSystems Cache.
Recently we had some strange problems with our 6.5 lab vCenter (Windows version with MSSQL Server db), which frequently crashed. After some digging in vpxd logs it seem to be related to vc db permissions:
“17-05-28T19:36:53.443+02:00 error vpxd [Originator@6876 sub=Default] [VdbStatement] SQLError was thrown: “ODBC error: (42000) – [Micrsoft][SQL Server Native Client 11.0][SQL Server]VIEW SERVER STATE permission was denied on object ‘server’, database ‘master’.” is returned when executing SQL statement “SELECT DB_NAME(mf.DATABASE_ID) Db_Name, CASE mf.FILE_ID WHEN 1 THEN ‘DATA’ WHEN 2 THEN ‘LOG’ END File_Type, vol.VOLUME_MOUNT_POINT AS Drive, CONVERT(INT,vol.AVAILABLE_BYTES/1048576.0) FreeSpaceInMB, (mf.SIZE*8)/1024 VCDB_Space_Mb, mf.PHYSICAL_NAME Physical_Name, SERVERPROPERTY(‘edition’) Sql_Server_Edition, SERVERPROPERTY(‘productversion’) Sql_Server_Version FROM SYS.M” action.“
The SQL execution is failing as the vCenter Server database user has no permisss on ‘master’ database, to resolve this issue, grant additional privileges to the vCenter Server database user:
grant VIEW SERVER STATE to [vCenter_database_user]
GRANT VIEW ANY DEFINITION TO [vCenter_database_user]
This is a mini article to start our Q&A set, a set of not easy to find answer real life questions 😉
Recently I received a question-related to advanced settings SAP app on vSphere platform:
“One of our customer ask us to set the following option to their virtual system: Misc.GuestLibAllowHostInfo This is according to SAP note: 1606643 where SAP requires reconfigure virtual system default configuration. I can’t find details information, which host data would be exposed to virtual system. Could you please point me to documentation or describe which information is being transferred from HOST to virtual systems?“
After some research I was able to find answer :
“Misc.GuestLibAllowHostInfo” and “tools.guestlib.enableHostInfo” these configurations if enabled allow the guest OS to access some of the ESXi host configurations, mainly performance metrics e.g. how many CPU cores the host has, their utilization and contention etc. There is no confidential information from other customers which would be visible, however, it may give the user of those SAP VMs access to performance/resource information which you may not want to share.
The following document outlines the effect of the changes as I have described above.
I believe the “might use the information to perform further attacks on the host” could only apply to other vulnerabilities which may exist for the particular hardware information that the guestOS can gather from the ESXi host.
Other than that I am not sure there is any other concern to worry about.
Do you have any interesting virtualization related question?
VMware vExpert is a non technical award granted by a special committee every year. It is a special award because there is no exam or anything like that. VMware judges give it for individuals who have demonstrated significant contributions to the community and share their expertise with others. This means different kinds of activities like blogging, sharing the knowledge by other channels or social media as well as public speakers, book authors, CloudCred task writing, script writers, VMUG leaders and VMTN community moderators.
In this year we are very pleased to announce that both of us (Paweł Piotrowski and Daniel Okrasa) were awarded with this mysterious title for the first time. The whole list of vExpert 2017 can be found here.
We would like to thanks to all of our readers and your feedback. We promise to develop our blog with more interesting articles about our experiences and observations mostly in relation to VMware products 🙂
We wish you all who read our modest blog Merry Christmas!
The year coming to the end so and it is the best time to spend some time with family, take a rest and have a sensational New Year party. We wish you a healthy life and remarkable achivements in the 2017.